Sunday, December 21, 2014

Berlapik atau berterus-terang?

Artikel di bawah ini (How To Say “This Is Crap” In Different Cultures oleh Erin Meyer) mengenai perbedaan budaya dalam menyatakan pandangan terhadap orang lain menarik perhatian saya.

Perbedaan budaya atau cara interaksi ini memberi kesan terhadap suasana bekerja di dalam sesebuah tanzim atau organisasi, termasuk gerakan Islam. Sesetengah orang lebih suka berlapik dan berkias dalam menyampaikan mesej mereka, seperti orang Inggeris. Dengan cara yang lebih "diplomatik" ini, setiap orang harus pandai memahami apa yang tersirat di sebalik yang tersurat.

Bagi diri saya, saya banyak ditarbiahkan untuk berterus-terang dan menyampaikan pandangan saya secara jujur, walaupun isinya mungkin pahit, iaitu seperti budaya orang Jerman. Cara begini mungkin akan menyentuh perasaan mereka yang terlibat. Namun saya juga ditarbiahkan agar tidak memendam perasaan di dalam hati kiranya saya di pihak yang "kena". Pada saya cara yang sebegini, membolehkan kita lebih telus, tetapi ia juga harus disertakan dengan tahap keikhlasan dan kejujuran serta adab yang tinggi, sehingga tidak menjejaskan hubungan sesama yang terlibat.

Juga, kalau zaman dahulu di awal komputer mula digunakan secara meluas, ada konsep WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get), maka saya juga suka menggunakan konsep yang sama, iaitu apa yang saya sebut itulah apa yang saya maksudkan, dan tak payahlah untuk cuba mentakwilkan apa yang di sebaliknya. Pada saya ini lebih mudah untuk saya dan untuk mereka berinteraksi dengan saya.

Sidang Ketiga DPN 2014-2018
20 Disember 2014


How To Say “This Is Crap” In Different Cultures
Erin Meyer
Harvard Business Review
February 25, 2014

I had been holed up for six hours in a dark conference room with 12 managers. It was a group-coaching day and each executive had 30 minutes to describe in detail a cross-cultural challenge she was experiencing at work and to get feedback and suggestions from the others at the table.

It was Willem’s turn, one of the Dutch participants, who recounted an uncomfortable snafu when working with Asian clients.  “How can I fix this relationship?” Willem asked his group of international peers.

Maarten, the other Dutch participant who knew Willem well, jumped in with his perspective. “You are inflexible and can be socially ill-at-ease. That makes it difficult for you to communicate with your team,” he asserted. As Willem listened, I could see his ears turning red (with embarrassment or anger? I wasn’t sure) but that didn’t seem to bother Maarten, who calmly continued to assess Willem’s weaknesses in front of the entire group. Meanwhile, the other participants — all Americans, British and Asians — awkwardly stared at their feet.

That evening, we had a group dinner at a cozy restaurant.  Entering a little after the others, I was startled to see Willem and Maarten sitting together, eating peanuts, drinking champagne, and laughing like old friends. They waved me over, and it seemed appropriate to comment, “I’m glad to see you together. I was afraid you might not be speaking to each other after the feedback session this afternoon.”

Willem, with a look of surprise, reflected, “Of course, I didn’t enjoy hearing those things about myself. It doesn’t feel good to hear what I have done poorly. But I so much appreciated that Maarten would be transparent enough to give me that feedback honestly. Feedback like that is a gift. Thanks for that, Maarten” he added with an appreciative smile.

I thought to myself, “This Dutch culture is... well... different from my own.”

Managers in different parts of the world are conditioned to give feedback in drastically different ways. The Chinese manager learns never to criticize a colleague openly or in front of others, while the Dutch manager learns always to be honest and to give the message straight. Americans are trained to wrap positive messages around negative ones, while the French are trained to criticize passionately and provide positive feedback sparingly.

One way to begin gauging how a culture handles negative feedback is by listening to the types of words people use. More direct cultures tend to use what linguists call upgraders, words preceding or following negative feedback that make it feel stronger, such as absolutely, totally, or strongly: “This is absolutely inappropriate,” or “This is totally unprofessional.”

By contrast, more indirect cultures use more downgraders, words that soften the criticism, such as kind of, sort of, a little, a bit, maybe, and slightly. Another type of downgrader is a deliberate understatement, such as “We are not quite there yet” when you really mean “This is nowhere close to complete.” The British are masters at it.  The “Anglo-Dutch Translation Guide”, which has been circulating in various versions on the Internet, illustrates the miscommunication that can result.

Germans are rather like the Dutch in respect of directness and interpret British understatement very similarly. Marcus Klopfer, a German client, described to me how a misunderstanding with his British boss almost cost him his job:

In Germany, we typically use strong words when complaining or criticizing in order to make sure the message registers clearly and honestly. Of course, we assume others will do the same. My British boss during a one-on-one “suggested that I think about” doing something differently. So I took his suggestion: I thought about it, and decided not to do it. Little did I know that his phrase was supposed to be interpreted as “change your behavior right away or else.” And I can tell you I was pretty surprised when my boss called me into his office to chew me out for insubordination!

I learned to ignore all of the soft words surrounding the message when listening to my British teammates. Of course, the other lesson was to consider how my British staff might interpret my messages, which I had been delivering as “purely” as possible with no softeners whatsoever. I realize now that when I give feedback in my German way, I may actually use words that make the message sound as strong as possible without thinking much about it. I’ve been surrounded by this “pure” negative feedback since I was a child.

All this can be interesting, surprising, and sometimes downright painful, when you are leading a global team: as you Skype with your employees in different cultures, your words will be magnified or minimized significantly based on your listener’s cultural context   So you have to work to understand how your own way of giving feedback is viewed in other cultures. As Klopfer reported:

Now that I better understand these cultural tendencies, I… soften the message when working with cultures less direct than my own.  I start by sprinkling the ground with a few light positive comments and words of appreciation. Then I ease into the feedback with “a few small suggestions.” As I’m giving the feed- back, I add words like “minor” or “possibly.” Then I wrap up by stating that “This is just my opinion, for whatever it is worth,” and “You can take it or leave it.” The elaborate dance is quite humorous from a German’s point of view… but it certainly gets [the] desired results!

What about you? Where do you think your own culture falls in this regard?   If I need to tell you your work is total crap, how would you like me to deliver the message?

Erin Meyer is an affiliate professor of organizational behavior specializing in cross-cultural management at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France, where she is the program director for two INSEAD executive education programs: Managing Global Virtual Teams and Management Skills for International Business.  She is the author of The Culture Map: Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business (PublicAffairs, due June 2014).  Follow her on Twitter: @ErinMeyerINSEAD.

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